Thursday, February 9, 2017

Fostering Creativity

If you know of John Cleese, it is probably through British television shows like Monty Python or Fawlty Towers or movies like A Fish Called Wanda. In addition to being an actor, he is also a screenwriter. Cleese also has thought quite a bit about the creative process. Below is a link to a video on YouTube in which he discusses how to foster creativity. The context is a business setting, but the ideas in the speech are easily applied to all disciplines. A significant point is that creativity is not an innate talent, but the result of a process. We can facilitate being more creative by setting aside regular, fixed, time intervals for brainstorming and resisting the urge to come up with solutions prematurely. What is essential is giving yourself the freedom to play with ideas and persistence. As Cleese says, "if you just keep your mind resting against the subject in a friendly but persistent way, sooner or later you will get a reward from your unconscious."



Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Discount on Fall Classes at ICP

Use code 16FEB15 to save 15% on fall courses and workshops at the ICP School through September 9.

Thursday, January 21, 2016

The Grammar of Photography: A 4 Person Show at Pratt SCPS Gallery, Opening February 19



Photographs can be many things. Some document a fleeting moment. Others transform their subject through light or perspective. Photographs tell us about the world as it is, or as the photographer imagines it.

Almost 3 years ago, I began teaching a course in visual literacy at Pratt SCPS called The Grammar of Photography. The goal of the course is to develop students’ ability to see in photographic terms and begin the process of aligning visual style and subject matter.

This exhibition showcases the current work of four alumni of the very first Grammar of Photography class: Debra Bilow, Ed Forti, Paul Kessel, and Felice Simon. While style and subject matter may differ, each of the exhibitors has succeeded in producing work that bears the stamp of a clearly defined personal vision. The result is photographs not just taken but made with a point of view. That’s not an easy task. I commend each of them for their hard work and dedication.

The Grammar of Photography
featuring the work of: Debra Bilow, Ed Forti, Paul Kessel, and Felice Simon

Exhibition Dates: February 19 - March 21, 2016
Opening February 19, 6:00-8:00pm

Pratt SCPS Gallery
144 14th St., 2nd Fl, New York, NY




Debra Bilow


Ed Forti


Paul Kessel


Felice Simon





Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Shows to See: Chelsea, September and October 2015

These shows caught my eye this weekend in Chelsea. I think Dan Flavin is not to be missed. Even the glow of color on the wall when moving from room to room was interesting. Will Ryman's show has a surprise in the back gallery -- I'm not going to give it away, so no photo of it here, but take a look yourself. The photos of cathedral architecture by Markus Brunetti are just amazing in their detail and use of scale. Brunetti's images are composites of multiple shots which combine to neutralize the effects of perspective distortion, realizing the buildings as if they are photographic renderings of an architect's blueprint.

There was quite a bit of process oriented photography, including the positive/negative photogram sets of Kunie Sugiura and the rock and roll inspired work of Farrah Karapetian. Wolgang Tillmans uses both traditional methods and experimentation in his evocative, sometime erotic, installations -- I think he is under-appreciated as a portraitist. Patrick Faigenbaum won the Henri Cartier-Bresson award recently. He is showing scenes from Kolkata, India. Robert Overby's work is an idiosyncratic blend of  pop art, obsession and the uncanny.


Dan Flavin at David Zwirner, 537 W. 20th St., through October 24.

Dan Flavin
Dan Flavin

Will Ryman at Paul Kasmin, 515 W. 27th St., through October 17.

Will Ryman
Will Ryman
Markus Brunetti at Yossi Milo, 245 10th Ave., through October 17.

Markus Brunetti

Markus Brunetti

 Kunie Sugiura at Leslie Tonkonow, 535 W. 22nd St.., through October 31.

Kunie Sugiura

Kunie Sugiura

Farrah Karapetian at Danziger Gallery, 521 W. 23rd St., through October 31.

Farrah Karapetian

Farrah Karapetian

Farrah Karapetian

Wolfgang Tillmans at David Zwirner, 525 W. 19th St., through October 24.

Wolfgang Tillmans

Wolfgang Tillmans

Wolfgang Tillmans

Patrick Faigenbaum at Aperture Gallery, 547 W. 27th St., 4th Fl., through November 7.

Patrick Faigenbaum

 Robert Overby at Andrew Kreps, 537 W. 22nd St., through October 31.

Robert Overby

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Classes in Visual Literacy and Personal Vision at Pratt CCPS




When I’m walking down the street with a beginning photo student, the student will often point at something and say something like “that’s a good photograph” every now and then. And almost always, my response will be: it might be a good subject, but it’s not a good picture. And of course, that leaves the student wondering what’s the difference between the two.

Initially, for many students, the way to make better photographs is to find “better” subjects. But finding the right subject is only half of the problem of making an interesting photograph, and in my opinion, it is the lesser half.  One of the most useful realizations that a photographer can have is that a photograph always shows two things: the subject and how the photographer sees the subject. While the subject itself is often not under our control, how we see is a skill that can be considered, practiced and refined.

About 2 years ago, I started to teach at Pratt Center for Continuing and Professional Studies. What began as a single course in composition and visual literacy for photographers has grown into a sequence that develops students’ ability to see, makes seeing personal, and then fuses personal visual style and subject matter. The end result is pictures not just taken, but also made with a point of view.


The Grammar of Photography
Wednesdays, 6:05 - 9:05, May 27 - July 29

Developing Your Personal Vision
Wednesdays, 2:05 - 5:05, May 27 - July 29

Photography Portfolio
Tuesdays, 2:05 - 5:05,  May 26 - July 28


You can download the Pratt CCPS course catalog here. Photography classes are on pages 26-27.

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Geometry in Photographic Composition



August Sander


The frame is the basis of a photograph’s composition. Within an image, lines parallel and perpendicular to the frame have a special attachment to it. They divide the photograph into discrete units that in turn seek their own sense of balance within the larger whole. The grid formed by these lines can create multiple frames, each with its own set of positive and negative spaces. Objects and areas located at intersections on the grid gather an extra visual weight. Far from being static compositional devices, grids can be used as a lattice through which the viewer moves from point to point in the photograph.

Let’s look at some specific examples of the grid as a compositional device. In the portraits by Robert Kalman below, notice how carefully the figure fits within the doorways, facades, stonework, and architectural details of the backgrounds. The integration of figure and ground completes the premise behind this series of images: portraits taken in front of the sitters’ places of residence.


Robert Kalman

Robert Kalman

Robert Kalman

Robert Kalman


Sometimes, as with the Robert Kalman photographs, the grid itself is clearly visible. I call this explicit grid. Other times, the grid needs to be pieced together by the viewer from the alignment of key elements within the frame. This is implicit grid. With implicit grid, the structure is felt more than seen. A good example of implicit grid is the image by Nicholas Nixon discussed in the very first entry in this series on composition. What appears to be a rather informal family gathering on a porch reveals itself to be highly organized. The (perhaps unconscious) appreciation of that structure is one of the elements which keeps viewers engaged with the image. In the street scenes by Alex Webb and Joel Meyerowitz below, do you see the grid underlying the apparently chaotic movement of the children at play and the pedestrians on the street?


Nicholas Nixon

Nicholas Nixon

Alex Webb

Joel Meyerowitz


Grids underlying an image can be complex, as with the Nixon and Webb images, but they don’t have to be. Below are some examples of a pattern one sees repeated frequently. These photographs all have something in common: they are divided into a square and a rectangle. The ratio of square to rectangle is very close to what is known as the Golden Section or Golden Ratio, a method of creating harmonious proportions known since antiquity.


Garry Winogrand

Steve McCurry

Steve McCurry


Robert Frank

Henri Cartier-Bresson

The Golden Section


For photographers, there is a pattern in how the square/rectangle tends to get used. Typically, a comparison is being made between the contents of the square and the contents of the rectangle. For example: man/woman, human/animal, dark/light, front/back, sharp/blurry, present/absent, etc. In class, I often talk about how composition is a matter of recognizing patterns. The square/rectangle is a particularly useful and simple motif, which solves some major compositional problems such as failing to identify the subject or failing to differentiate subject and foil. I encourage you to practice looking for squares and rectangles as you shoot in order to make this device part of your visual vocabulary. I also recommend looking for underlying grids in the work of established photographers to help train your eye to see those as well.


This is the eigth in a series of blog posts dealing with photographic composition. The others can be found in the “For Students” section on the menu bar. The ideas introduced in these essays are also presented in The Grammar of Photography, a class I teach at Pratt Institute. The next section of that class begins February 4, and will run Wednesday evenings for 10 weeks. For more information, you can download a pdf of the Pratt course catalog here.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Pratt Photography Lecture with Stephen Shore, January 28, 2015




Photographer, author, and educator Stephen Shore will open the Spring 2015 season of Pratt Photography Lectures in conversation with Visiting Associate Professor Peter Kayafas. Shore's work has been widely published and exhibited for the past 40 years. His first career retrospective was organized by FundacĂ­on Mapfre, Madrid last fall and will travel to additional European venues through September 2016.

Shore's The Nature of Photographs is one of the required texts in both The Photographer's Eye at ICP and The Grammar of Photography at Pratt. I highly recommend attending. The images above and below are from Shore's Uncommon Places.


Wednesday, January 28
6:30 PM

Pratt Brooklyn Campus
Higgins Hall Auditorium

61 St. James Place
Brooklyn, NY


The event is free and open to the public. No RSVP is necessary.
Doors open to Pratt students, faculty, and staff at 6 PM. Doors open to the public at 6:15 PM







Monday, September 15, 2014

Shows to See: Photography Shortlist September 2014

September marks the beginning of the school year and also the Fall exhibition season. Here is my list of top photography gallery exhibitions to see over the next few weeks.

Lois Conner at Gitterman Gallery. 41 E. 57th St, #1103. Through November 15. Panoramic landscapes from the American Southwest, China, New York City and other places.









Matthew Pillsbury at Bonni Benrubi Gallery. 41 E. 57th St., 13th Floor. Through October 25. Tokyo.








Mona Kuhn at Edwynn Houk Gallery. 745 5th Ave. Through October 18. Acido Dorado.







Stepehen Shore at 303 Gallery. 507 W. 24th St. Through November 1. Images from Israel and the Ukraine.









Justine Kurland at Mitchell-Innes & Nash. 534 W 26th St. Through October 11. Sincere Auto Care.










Marco Breuer at Yossi Milo Gallery. 245 10th Ave. Through November 1. Abstractions made by scratching through the paper emulsion, folding it, and other things you're not supposed to do.